Banana cultivation in the garden and in the pot
Growing bananas in the garden or even in pots on the terrace or roof is not something impossible for the southern and warmer regions of our country. In many cases, this planting can produce fruits, which may not be the same size as the commercial ones, but they may be just as tasty.
- Botanical classification: Belongs to the Musa genus of the Musaceae family. The Musaceae family includes 3 genera with about 90 species of monocotyledonous plants.
- Origin: From the regions of Southeast Asia. Indications of its cultivation Bananas have been around since 2500 years ago in India.
- Production data in Greece: It is cultivated worldwide in many countries such as India, Brazil, China, Ecuador, Philippines, Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Mexico, Panama, etc. In Greece, it is cultivated in Crete, mainly in Ierapetra, but also in other areas of the island. It is also cultivated on a small scale in areas of the southern Peloponnese. Other species with similar use: Is the plantain or Banana Antilles are the bananas that are eaten only cooked. There is no botanical distinction between the regular banana and the plantain. Banana is rich in starch..
- Banana nutritional value: According to the USDA an average size banana weighs 110 grams and contains 93.5 calories and about 86 grams of water. It is a fruit rich in potassium, iron, magnesium, vitamin B6 and vitamin C.
Health benefits of eating banana: Eating banana is related by improving blood sugar levels, it supports digestive health system and the heart. In addition, it is a fruit rich in antioxidants and gives energy during its consumption.
- Height – Plant Growth: It is an evergreen, perennial monocotyledonous plant. It has a tree form but is a herbaceous plant. It creates a woody part (pseudo-stem) and after harvesting the above-ground part of the plant it dries and falls to the ground.
- Leaves: Banana leaves are large, lobed with long midrib lines.
- Fruits: The fruits are seedless and each bunch weighs 20-25 kg.
- Roots and rhizome: The roots of the plant grow superficially in the soil and do not grow very deep.
- Growth Rate: Shows a rapid growth rate
- Offshoots: The Banana Cultivation Offshoots are produced at the bottom of the plant which act antagonistically to the crop and can injure the fruits as they grow for it and must be removed.
Factors affecting cultivation:
- Light: Banana is usually planted in sunny or slightly shaded areas in the garden.
- Temperature: Ideal temperatures for plant growth are from 20 to 35 oC. Below 11oC the vegetation stops and below 6oC the fruiting stops.
- Soil-Soil: It requires medium soils (sandy loam) and well aerated while heavy clay soils that are not aerated and do not drain well should be avoided. The best soil pH range for Banana growth is between 5.5 and 6.5.
- Moisture: Banana grows best and produces best in areas with high soil moisture.
- Climatic conditions: It is negatively affected by the wind that can cause tearing of the leaves up to the destruction of the plant as well as by hail.
Cultivation work and treatments needed:
- Soil preparation: For the installation of the bathroom in the ground, it is good to have the soil deep enough before planting the plant, while you can use good soil and compost as well as phosphorus and potassium fertilizer. Young plants are usually planted in mid-spring when temperatures are favorable for root development and are set about 2.5 to 3 meters apart.
- Watering: It is a plant that needs large amounts of water and the irrigation of the banana tree must start from spring with the first warm days until certainly mid-autumn. The best method also for bananas is to use a drip (drip irrigation).
- Fertilizer: Foliar fertilization for banana cultivation plays a very important role. In general, however, when the banana is grown amateurishly or in the garden, we must know that it is very important to add potassium and, secondarily, nitrogen and phosphorus. Generally the ratio between Nitrogen : Phosphorus : Potassium is 2:1:4. Magnesium or iron deficiencies are often observed in banana cultivation.
- Other work: Plants need underpinning. The understyling of the banana is important even in areas where we don’t have strong winds. The underpinning must start from the beginning but mainly in the autumn months when they must be underpinned and well supported as they are then at their greatest growth and fruiting. When the bunches have also grown several times it may be necessary to cover them with a special fruit cover to protect them from hail or from birds.
- Plant protection: The banana is often attacked by nematodes such as Meloidogyne, Helicotylanthus and Platylenchus which attack the root system creating a problem for the plant as it cannot be used in water and nutrients.
- Varieties: The most popular banana varieties are Gelik, Dwarf Cavendish How the banana is propagated The banana is propagated in a rude way and more specifically by offshoots that grow at the base of the mother plants. The offshoots to be able to grow successfully into new banana trees must have a rhizome and trunk section.
Planting banana in a pot:
Bania is one of the plants that can be grown in large pots in the garden, on the balcony, on the terrace or even on the roof. We have to use large pots and deep ones where at the bottom we definitely put pumice stone for good drainage. The soil we will use must be of good quality general use for plants, and we can use and use in a resolution of 1 to 5 or 1 to 6 depending on the soil we have procured.
All cultivation care is exactly as if we had the banana down in the ground. So watering should be frequent with the preferred method of drip irrigation. In summer, watering should be repeated daily or every two days, while in spring and autumn, every three to four days. We must fertilize often with good quality fertilizers, every twenty days.